The economy of the pre-colonial Gold Coast was dependent on subsistence farming, in which farm produce was shared within households, and members … & Jordan, A. & Jordon, A. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Wilzenski, F. L. (1995). B. This involved the integration of young people with special learning needs into normal schools, without taking them out of the classroom (except in very exceptional situations), but by setting up teaching experiences adapted to all of the children, whatever their needs. This means that the more teachers and principals know about inclusive education the more they have a positive attitude towards it. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. This theory is linked to The Intergroup Contact Theory. (1954). 39 of educational needs such as poverty or other conditions hindering successful 40 implementation of inclusion. Pettigrew, T.F., & Tropp, L. (2006). O’Toole, B., Hofslett, K., Bupuru, K.A, Ofori-Addo, L. & Kotoku, G. (1996). Conceptualizing disability in Ghana: Implications for EFA and Inclusive Education. The authors first delineate the wider human well-being and historical contexts. The Teacher Educator, 37 (3), 173-185. Further, the contextual realities of regular education schools including notably principals’ expectations (Kuyini & Desai, 2007; Sodak& Podell, 1994), shape the school cultures or climates for successful inclusion. In: International Journal of Inclusive Education. pp 142-148. & Grant-Thompson, S. (1998). • An inclusive education system must organically integrate and link all forms, types and styles of learning as well as different learning objectives, from early childhood education onwards • The curriculum represents a crucial tool for fostering a broadened concept of inclusive education and to implement educational policy from a long-term Some call us names which we don’t like said another student and sometimes I don’t feel like playing because other students tease me and teachers don’t do anything to stop those who bully us. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). According to Avramidis et al (2000) and Cook (2001), although the roles practice, teacher knowledge and attitudes are considered as crucial to successful inclusion, most mainstream principals' and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion were often negative. The Journal of Social Issues, 54 (4), 795. Reducing explicit and implicit prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Rigidity and curricular inflexibility is a result of teachers` attitude and poor teacher knowledge (Avoke & Avoke, 2004; Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009; Ocloo & Subbey, 2008; Yarboi-Tetteh, 2008; Gadagbui, 2008). Interpersonal and attitudinal outcomes in cooperating interracial groups. A teacher remarked: We are told what to do and if you don’t you face problems may be losing your job or at best transferred. Ntombela, S. (2009) Are we there yet? These findings support the theoretical framework of the study that positive contact leads to favorable attitudes toward inclusion in a learning situation (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). 1. How do Ghanaian teachers implement Inclusive Education? Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana Florence Akua Mensah 1* Jeremiah Badu-Shayar 2 1.Department of Special Education, University of Education, PO box 25, WinnebaCentral Region- Ghana 2.Division of Special Education, Ghana Education Service, Accra –Ghana Abstract 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). The Journal of Social Psychology, 136 (5), 549-558. This is followed by a comprehensive … These factors included physical disabilities, visual/hearing disabilities and intellectual disabilities. (1978). These identified issues raise the question of whether or not schools in Ghana are conceptualising and implementing inclusive education in line with the basic philosophical ideas, as well as research underpinning the concept. Avoke, M. K. & Avoke, S. K. (2004). An Examination of Teachers‟ use of Instructional Strategies in Primary Schools in Ghana: Implication to Inclusive Education. Intergroup friendships: Integrated and desegregated schools in Nothern Ireland. This means the extent to which the person feels in control of engaging in the behavior. Such a conclusion is supported in the current study where the students requiring major and minor curriculum changes were also less favored in company with those requiring Braille and those students using sign language. Qualitative data was analysed using observations, conversational and textual analysis of data. As a result people relate to each other not group representative but as individuals. Building New Identities in Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education in Ghana. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12, 97-113. © Copyright 2020 European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education All Rights Reserved | Terms of use. This is the theoretical model that guided the study. Attitudes and there from resulting behavior towards disabled students generally transformed into the classrooms are based on strong religious and cultural beliefs which are entrenched in all aspects of the society. These findings reinforce an earlier assertion by Welch (1989, 2000) that the reluctance of teachers to include students with special needs must be addressed if a policy of inclusion is to be successful. (2007). In the context of The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and Intergroup contact Theory All port (1954), this study set out to examine the extent to which teachers` attitudes, influenced implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools. It would appear that regular classroom teachers view inclusive education as a decision from above, which has put them under additional pressure (Gadagbui, 2008). In general, teachers were found to hold some positive attitudes toward inclusion, but had little knowledge of inclusive practices. The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In UNESCO, (1994) Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmes. The Education … This study set out to examine teachers` implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools taking into consideration teachers` attitudes toward inclusion of disabled students in regular classroom. Cross-cultural perspective. Negative attitudes of teachers were associated with large class-sizes and the presence of a student with disability in the classroom. & Wrightsman, S.L. of how each of the study variables impact on inclusive school practices in Ghana. This was evident in the limited use of instructional adaptations to meet individual needs. Research shows that adolescent girls are usually unable to get an education due to factors such as poverty, gender inequality and long distances from school. UNESCO, 2007. Remedial and Special Education, 19, 350-363. UNESCO, Paris. Changes at policy level and support facilities for special needs students as an explicit concern are needed to achieve this equalization. Sharma, U. Lawrence Elbaum Associate Publishers. After twenty years of inclusion. Ofori-Addo, L Worgbeyi, N. & Tay, K. (1999). In the field of inclusive education this theory is without doubt of great importance. Exceptional Children, 64 (1), 31-47. The effect is greatly enhanced if this contact is sanctioned by institutional supports” (Allport, 1954. p. 281). • SpED built capacity for inclusive education in the district through; – Training of trainers (TOT) workshop. Anthony J. And are teachers implementing inclusion in any meaningful way to foster academic and social inclusion? The Ghana chapter on special education begins with the history of service provisions for persons with disabilities. Are regular education classes equipped to accommodate students with learning disabilities?. I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. In other words, are schools restructured, re-oriented and re-organised to create school norms /climates conducive for inclusive education? However, a student's level of disability may emerge as a factor shaping the attitudes of teachers to the inclusion of special needs students. Thus, according to Allport (1954) the three factors that have a positive influence on the intergroup contacts are equal status within the situation, common goals and authority support. Celebrating and sharing my experiences and journeys of inclusive education in Ghana. Behavioral intention is determined by attitude towards a target behavior and knowledge (Ajzen, 1985). With inclusive education models used in ghana, they were asked to talk about learning and teaching activities in the behavior Social Issues, (... The behavior decision-making is concerned, 82 ( 1 ), Agbenyega, J and government policy on! 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